Sunday, 24 May 2020

Birthday of queen...


Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. She adopted the additional title of Empress of India on 1 May 1876. Known as the Victorian era, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn (the fourth son of King George III), and Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. After both the Duke and his father died in 1820, she was raised under close supervision by her mother and her comptroller, John Conroy. She inherited the throne aged 18 after her father's three elder brothers died without surviving legitimate issue. Though a constitutional monarch, privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments; publicly, she became a national icon who was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840. Their children married into royal and noble families across the continent, earning Victoria the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe" and spreading haemophilia in European royalty. After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances.
She died on the Isle of Wight in 1901. The last British monarch of the House of Hanover, she was succeeded by her son Edward VII of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.
After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the British East India Company, which had ruled much of India, was dissolved, and Britain's possessions and protectorates on the Indian subcontinent were formally incorporated into the British Empire. The Queen had a relatively balanced view of the conflict, and condemned atrocities on both sides. She wrote of "her feelings of horror and regret at the result of this bloody civil war", and insisted, urged on by Albert, that an official proclamation announcing the transfer of power from the company to the state "should breathe feelings of generosity, benevolence and religious toleration". At her behest, a reference threatening the "undermining of native religions and customs" was replaced by a passage guaranteeing religious freedom.
In the 1874 general election, Disraeli was returned to power. He passed the Public Worship Regulation Act 1874, which removed Catholic rituals from the Anglican liturgy and which Victoria strongly supported. She preferred short, simple services, and personally considered herself more aligned with the presbyterian Church of Scotland than the episcopal Church of England. Disraeli also pushed the Royal Titles Act 1876 through Parliament, so that Victoria took the title "Empress of India" from 1 May 1876. The new title was proclaimed at the Delhi Durbar of 1 January 1877.
Between April 1877 and February 1878, she threatened five times to abdicate while pressuring Disraeli to act against Russia during the Russo-Turkish War, but her threats had no impact on the events or their conclusion with the Congress of Berlin. Disraeli's expansionist foreign policy, which Victoria endorsed, led to conflicts such as the Anglo-Zulu War and the Second Anglo-Afghan War. "If we are to maintain our position as a first-rate Power", she wrote, "we must ... be Prepared for attacks and wars, somewhere or other, CONTINUALLY." Victoria saw the expansion of the British Empire as civilising and benign, protecting native peoples from more aggressive powers or cruel rulers: "It is not in our custom to annexe countries", she said, "unless we are obliged & forced to do so."
On 2 March 1882, Roderick Maclean, a disgruntled poet apparently offended by Victoria's refusal to accept one of his poems, shot at the Queen as her carriage left Windsor railway station. Two schoolboys from Eton College struck him with their umbrellas, until he was hustled away by a policeman.
On 17 March 1883, Victoria fell down some stairs at Windsor, which left her lame until July; she never fully recovered and was plagued with rheumatism thereafter. Brown died 10 days after her accident, and to the consternation of her private secretary, Sir Henry Ponsonby, Victoria began work on a eulogistic biography of Brown.
In 1887, the British Empire celebrated the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria. She marked the fiftieth anniversary of her accession on 20 June with a banquet to which 50 kings and princes were invited. The following day, she participated in a procession and attended a thanksgiving service in Westminster Abbey.
By this time, Victoria was once again extremely popular. Two days later on 23 June, she engaged two Indian Muslims as waiters, one of whom was Abdul Karim. He was soon promoted to "Munshi": teaching her Urdu (known as Hindustani) and acting as a clerk.

She died on Tuesday 22 January 1901, at half past six in the evening, at the age of 81. Her son and successor, King Edward VII, and her eldest grandson, Emperor Wilhelm II, were at her deathbed. Her favourite pet Pomeranian, Turi, was laid upon her deathbed as a last request.

Saturday, 23 May 2020

Disputes with India...


Nepal on Wednesday published a new, authoritative political map showing the areas of Lipulekh, Kalapani, and Limpiyadhura as part of its territory, toughening its stance on a recently flared up territorial dispute with India.
The tensions between the two neighbors deepened further when India inaugurated an road linking Dharchula in Uttarakhand state to Lipulekh, as part of the Kailash-Mansarovar pilgrimage route.
India isn’t happy with this move by Nepal. New Delhi rejected Kathmandu’s unilateral act, saying it wasn’t based on historical facts and evidence. It also stated that this act was contrary to bilateral understandings on the resolution of the territorial issue through dialogue.
The border issue between Nepal and India isn’t new and has come up now and again since the 1960s. The Nepal-India border was delineated in 1816, by the Sugauli treaty, which was signed between the British East India Company and the King of Nepal following the Anglo-Nepalese war. The Sugauli treaty clearly states that Lipulekh, Kalapani, and Limpiyadhura belong to Nepal.
Due to political instability in Nepal and India’s strong influence in domestic politics, Nepal’s leaders were reluctant to discuss this issue seriously. This move has opened up more avenues for bilateral talks. Nepal should be ready to face India and India should be ready to hold serious bilateral dialogues to resolve this issue.


Kashmir conflict..
The Kashmir conflict is a territorial conflict primarily between India and Pakistan over the Kashmir region. The conflict started after the partition of India in 1947 as a dispute over the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir and escalated into three wars between India and Pakistan and several other armed skirmishes. China has also been involved in the conflict in a third-party role.
Both India and Pakistan claimed the entirety of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, although Pakistan has recognized Chinese sovereignty over the Trans-Karakoram Tract and Aksai Chin since 1963.
India administers Jammu, the Kashmir Valley, most of Ladakh, and the Siachen Glacier.
Pakistan administers Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan. China administers the Aksai Chin region, the mostly uninhabited Trans-Karakoram Tract, and part of the Demchok sector.
British rule in the Indian subcontinent ended in 1947 with the creation of new states: the dominions of Pakistan and India, as the successor states to British India. The British Paramountcy over the 562 Indian princely states ended.

According to the Indian Independence Act 1947, "the suzerainty of His Majesty over the Indian States lapses, and with it, all treaties and agreements in force at the date of the passing of this Act between His Majesty and the rulers of Indian States".
States were thereafter left to choose whether to join India or Pakistan or to remain independent. Jammu and Kashmir, the largest of the princely states, had a predominantly Muslim population ruled by the Hindu Maharaja Hari Singh. He decided to stay independent because he expected that the State's Muslims would be unhappy with accession to India, and the Hindus and Sikhs would become vulnerable if he joined Pakistan.
On 11 August, the Maharaja dismissed his prime minister Ram Chandra Kak, who had advocated independence. Observers and scholars interpret this action as a tilt towards accession to India.
Pakistanis decided to preempt this possibility by wresting Kashmir by force if necessary.
Accordingly, the Simla Agreement was formulated and signed by the two countries, whereby the countries resolved to settle their differences by peaceful means through bilateral negotiations and to maintain the sanctity of the Line of Control. Multilateral negotiations were not ruled out, but they were conditional upon both sides agreeing to them.
To India, this meant an end to the UN or other multilateral negotiations. However Pakistan reinterpreted the wording in the light of a reference to the "UN charter" in the agreement, and maintained that it could still approach the UN. The United States, United Kingdom and most Western governments agree with India's interpretation.
Article 370 was drafted in the Indian constitution granting special autonomous status to the state of Jammu and Kashmir, as per Instrument of Accession. This article specifies that the State must concur in the application of laws by Indian parliament, except those that pertain to Communications, Defence and Foreign Affairs. Central Government could not exercise its power to interfere in any other areas of governance of the state.
In a broadcast on 2 November 1947, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru announced that the fate of Kashmir would ultimately be decided by the people, once law and order was established, through a referendum "held under international auspices like the United Nations."
A similar pledge was made by the Government of India when the Kashmir dispute was referred to the UN Security Council on 1 January 1948. By some accounts Mountbatten had an understanding with Nehru that a referendum on the region's future would be held later.
According to historian Zutshi, in the late 1940s, most Kashmiri Muslims in Indian Kashmir were still debating the value of the state's association with India or Pakistan. By the 1950s, she says, the National Conference government's repressive measures and the Indian state's seeming determination to settle the state's accession to India without a reference to the people of the state brought Kashmiri Muslims to extol the virtues of Pakistan and condemn India's high-handedness in its occupation of the territory, and even those who had been in India's favour began to speak in terms of the state's association with Pakistan.
In 2005, General Musharraf, as well as other Pakistani leaders, sought to resolve the Kashmir issue through the Chenab Formula road map. Based on the 'Dixon Plan', the Chenab Formula assigns Ladakh to India, Gilgit-Baltistan (G-B) to Pakistan, proposes a plebiscite in the Kashmir Valley and splits Jammu into two-halves.

On 5 December 2006, Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf told an Indian TV channel that Pakistan would give up its claim on Kashmir if India accepted some of his peace proposals, including a phased withdrawal of troops, self-governance for locals, no changes in the borders of Kashmir, and a joint supervision mechanism involving India, Pakistan, and Kashmir.
Musharraf stated that he was ready to give up the United Nations' resolutions regarding Kashmir.
India has officially stated Kashmir to be an integral part of India, though the then Prime Minister of India, Manmohan Singh, stated after the 2010 Kashmir Unrest that his government was willing to grant autonomy to the region within the purview of Indian constitution if there was consensus among political parties on this issue.

Friday, 22 May 2020

Facts to know...

In the year 1989 on 22nd May, India's Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile (IRBM) Agni was successfully tasted in Chandipur, Orissa. 


The Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (IGMDP) was launched in 1983.
This program was launched with an agenda to develop five missile systems in the country – Trishul, Akash, Nag, Prithvi, and Agni-I.
These above missiles are of the intermediate-range surface-to-surface missile.
Tessy Thomas who is an Indian scientist and Director General of Aeronautical Systems and the former Project Director for Agni-IV missile in Defence Research and Development Organisation(DRDO) is known as the ‘Missile Woman’ of India.
Prithvi was the first Indian single staged liquid-fuelled surface-to-surface Missile.



Air-to-air missiles- MICA, Astra Missile, Novator K100.
Surface-To-Air Missiles- Trishul, Akash, Barak 8.
Surface-to-surface Missiles- Agni-I, Agni-II, Agni-III, Agni-IV, Agni-V, Prithvi I, Prithvi II, Dhanush, Shaurya, Prahaar.
Cruise Missiles- BrahMos, BrahMos II, Nirbhay.
Defence Missile- Prithvi Air Defence, Prithvi Defence Vehicle, Advanced Air Defence.
Submarine Launched Ballistic Missiles- Ashwin, Sagarika, K-4, K-5.
Anti-Tank Missile- Amogha, Nag, Helina.

Thursday, 21 May 2020

Anti terrorism day...

May 21, Anti terrorism day
Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi Memorial Day  is celebrated as the Day of Anti Terrorism.
This day is adoped and celebrated to honour of the death of Rajiv Gandhi on May 21, 1991.
This day is being observed in the theory of extremism that is fierce and stronger than politics, and the doctrine of eradicating terrorism that threatens a civilized and democratic way of life.
Opponents of a governments that people was killing, torture and deportation by military, police and intelligence, is a part of terrorism.
These are called Government terrorism.
terrorism or extremism is that againt the strikes the lives, possessions, dignities, or beliefs and principles of a particular individual or a particular community outside of the agreed international rules.

                                   

Know about WHO...

World Health Organization (WHO) on Twitter: "Opening of the ...
The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for international public health. The WHO Constitution, which establishes the agency's governing structure and principles, states its main objective as "the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health." It is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, with six semi-autonomous regional offices and 150 field offices worldwide.
The WHO was established by constitution on 7 April 1948, which is commemorated as World Health Day.
The founder countries of this organisation are: India, United States of America, Brazil, Mexico, Turkey, Australia, Argentina, Colombia, United Kingdom, Canada, Iran, France, Egypt, Peru, Poland, Ethiopia, Venezula, Saudi Arabia, Ecuador, Netherlands, Iraq, Syria, Greece, New Zealand, Chile, Belgium, Norway, Denmark, Costa Rica, Cuba, Phillippines, Lebanon, Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, Guatemala, El Salvador, Bolivia, Nicaragua, Honduras, Dominican Republic, Soviet Unioin, Luxembourg, Panama, Haiti, Uruguay, Yugoslavia, Liberia, Czechoslovakia, Republic of China, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, Union of South Africa.

The first meeting of the World Health Assembly (WHA), the agency's governing body, took place on 24 July 1948. The WHO incorporated the assets, personnel, and duties of the League of Nations' Health Organisation and the Office International d'Hygiène Publique, including the International Classification of Diseases.
The WHA, composed of representatives from all 194 member states, serves as the agency's supreme decision-making body. It also elects and advises an Executive Board made up of 34 health specialists. The WHA convenes annually and is responsible for selecting the Director-General, setting goals and priorities, and approving the WHO's budget and activities. The current Director-General is Tedros Adhanom, former Health Minister and Foreign Minister of Ethiopia, who began his five-year term on 1 July 2017.
On 5 May 2014, WHO announced that the spread of polio was a world health emergency – outbreaks of the disease in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East were considered "extraordinary".
On 8 August 2014, WHO declared that the spread of Ebola was a public health emergency; an outbreak which was believed to have started in Guinea had spread to other nearby countries such as Liberia and Sierra Leone. The situation in West Africa was considered very serious.
On 30 January 2020, the WHO declared the COVID-19 pandemic was a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC).
Union Health Minister Harsh Vardhan, who is at the forefront of India's battle against COVID-19, is set to take charge as the chairman of the World Health Organization (WHO) Executive Board on May 22.
Mr Vardhan would succeed Dr Hiroki Nakatani of Japan, currently the Chairman of the 34-member WHO Executive Board.
The proposal to appoint India's nominee to the executive board was signed by the 194-nation World Health Assembly on Tuesday, officials said on condition of anonymity.

Wednesday, 20 May 2020

Some Indian cyclones name...

Cyclone Amphan – 2020 Cyclone Amphan is a very powerful tropical cyclone of 2020 raising over the Bay of Bengal around the state of Odisha and West Bengal in India. The Super Cyclonic Storm Amphan is the first super cyclonic storm and also the first pre monsoon super cyclone of this century.
Kyarr and Maha 2019 ( Vayu and Hikka)-Kyarr and Maha are the 2 cyclones at same time developed over the past 10 days in the Arabian Sea. Cyclone Kyarr moved towards the towards the Gulf of Aden from Indian coast while cyclone Maha is coming to the west coast of India, There have been four cyclones in the Arabian in 2019 – Vayu, Hikka, Kyarr and now Maha.
Cyclone Vayu-Cyclone Vayu in northwestern India caused moderate damage in the states, form in the Arabian Sea and did damage in the state of Gujarat.
Cyclone Fani – 2019-Cyclone Fani is Extremely Severe cyclone and storm in the shape of hood of a snake, threatening Indian states of Odisha and Andhra Pradesh and the first severe cyclonic storm of the 2019 in India.
Cyclone Phethai – 2018-Cyclone Phethai is part of the ongoing 2018 North Indian Ocean cyclone season over the Bay of Bengal
Cyclone Gaja – 2018-Cyclone Gaja hit the Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and some parts of coastal Puducherry with heavy rainfall in Cuddalore and Pamban.
Cyclone Titli – 2018-Very severe cyclonic storm Titli was part of the 2018 North Indian Ocean cyclone season and makes landfall in Odisha’s Gopalpur and Srikakulam of Andhra Pradesh.
Cyclone Ockhi – 2017-Cyclone Ockhi was the most intense and one of the most strongest tropical cyclone of the 017 North Indian Ocean cyclone season. Ockhi from the Arabian Sea affected mainland India along with coastal areas of Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Gujarat.
Cyclone Vardah – 2016- Cyclone Vardah brought heavy rainfall to Andaman and Nicobar Islands then crossed the eastern coast of India and affected Chennai, Kancheepuram and Visakhapatnam.
Cyclone Hudhud – 2014- Cyclone Hudhud was a strong tropical cyclone, done damage to Visakhapatnam city of Andhra Pradesh. Visakhapatnam or Vizag along with Odisha was mostly affected by Hudhud.
Cyclone Phailin – 2013- Cyclone Phailin was second strongest tropical cyclone in India since the 1999 Odisha cyclone, resulted heavy rainfall in Odisha,Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand as well as other Indian states.
Cyclone Helen – 2013- Cyclone Helen brought heavy rainfalls in eastern India and became a Severe Cyclonic Storm in India. Cyclonic Storm Helen formed in the Bay of Bengal Region and affected Andhra Pradesh.
Cyclone Nilam – 2012- Cyclone Nilam was the deadliest tropical cyclone in India, Originating from an area of Bay of Bengal in South India. The heavy rains and strong winds by Cyclone Nilam affected Chennai Port of Tamil Nadu and New Port railway station in Kakinada in Andhra Pradesh.
Cyclone Phyan – 2009- Cyclone Phyan emerged into the Arabian Sea and caused heavy rainfall in Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and Gujarat. Phyan was one of the wettest cyclone in India and brought extremely heavy rainfall of over the coasts of Karnataka, Goa and Maharashtra.
Odisha Cyclone – 1999 -The Orissa cyclone in the year of 1999 was the strongest storm to hit the Indian coast and also the strongest tropical cyclones that affected India.
Bhola Cyclone – 1970- Bhola Cyclone was the deadliest cyclone that affected India, followed by 1999 Orissa cyclone and Andhra Pradesh cyclone in 1977. The storm formed over the Bay of Bengal and one of the deadliest natural disasters in India.

Tuesday, 19 May 2020

Learning is free...

Jimmy Wales-Jimmy Donal "Jimbo" Wales (born August 7, 1966) is an American-British Internet entrepreneur. He is a co-founder of the online non-profit encyclopedia Wikipedia and the for-profit web hosting company Wikia.
Wales was born in Huntsville, Alabama, where he attended Randolph School, a university-preparatory school. He earned bachelor's and master's degrees in finance from Auburn University and the University of Alabama respectively.
On January 15, 2001, with Larry Sanger and others, Wales launched Wikipedia—a free, open-content encyclopedia that enjoyed rapid growth and popularity. As Wikipedia's public profile grew, he became its promoter and spokesman.
In a 2004 interview with Slashdot, Wales outlined his vision for Wikipedia: "Imagine a world in which every single person on the planet is given free access to the sum of all human knowledge. That's what we're doing."
While interview with The New York Times in 2008 he said that "Dialing down is not an option for me ... Not to be too dramatic about it, but, 'to create and distribute a free encyclopedia of the highest possible quality to every single person on the planet in their own language,' that's who I am. That's what I am doing. That's my life goal."
He is the one who gave free access of knowledge to everyone without costing a penny.


Do you know...

Bipin Chandra Pal was born on 7 November 1858 -was an Indian nationalist, writer, orator, social reformer and Indian independence movement activist. He was one third of the Lal Bal Pal triumvirate.
 Pal was one of the main architects of the Swadeshi movement. He stood against the partition of Bengal by the colonial British government.
 Bipin Chandra Pal was born in the village of Poil, Habiganj, Sylhet District, Bengal Presidency of British India, in a Hindu Bengali Kayastha family. His Sylheti father was Ramchandra Pal, a Persian scholar, and small landowner.
 As revolutionary as he was in politics, Pal was the same in his private life as well. After his first wife died, he married a widow and joined the Brahmo Samaj.
 Pal is known as the Father of Revolutionary Thoughts in India and was one of the freedom fighters of India.
 Pal became a major leader of the Indian National Congress. Along with Lala Lajpat Rai and Bal Gangadhar Tilak he belonged to the Lal, Bal, Pal trio that was associated with revolutionary activity.  Aurobindo Ghosh and Pal were recognised as the chief exponents of a new national movement revolving around the ideals of Purna Swaraj, Swadeshi, boycott and national education. His programme consisted of Swadeshi, boycott and national education.

 During the last six years of his life, he parted company with the Congress and led a secluded life. Sri Aurobindo referred to him as one of mightiest prophets of nationalism. Bipin Chandra Pal made his efforts to remove social and economic ills. He opposed caste system and advocated widow remarriage. He advocated 48 hours of work week and demanded for the hike in wages of workers. He expressed his disdain for Gandhi's ways, which he criticised for being rooted in “magic” instead of “logic”.
 As a journalist, Pal worked for Bengal Public Opinion, The Tribune and New India, where he propagated his brand of nationalism. He wrote several articles warning India of the changes happening in China and other geopolitical situations. In one of his writings, describing where the future danger for India will come from, Pal wrote under the title "Our Real Danger".
 He died on 20th May 1932.

Outbreaks of pandemics.

Black Death 1720
The Black Death, also known as the Pestilence and the Plague, was the most fatal pandemic recorded in human history, resulting in the deaths of up to 75–200 million people in Eurasia and North Africa, peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351. Plague, the disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, was the cause; Y. pestis infection most commonly results in bubonic plague, but can cause septicaemic or pneumonic plagues.
The Black Death most likely originated in Central Asia or East Asia, from where it travelled along the Silk Road, reaching Crimea by 1347. From there, it was most likely carried by fleas living on the black rats that travelled on Genoese merchant ships, spreading throughout the Mediterranean Basin and reaching Africa, Western Asia, and the rest of Europe via Constantinople, Sicily, and the Italian Peninsula. Current evidence indicates that once it came onshore, the Black Death was in large part spread by human fleas – which cause pneumonic plague – and the person-to-person contact via aerosols which pneumonic plague enables, thus explaining the very fast inland spread of the epidemic, which was faster than would be expected if the primary vector was rat fleas causing bubonic plague.
There are no exact figures for the death toll, the rate varied widely by locality. In urban centres, the greater the population before the outbreak, the longer the duration of the period of abnormal mortality. It killed some 75 to 200 million people in Eurasia. The mortality rate of the Black Death in the 14th century was far greater than the worst 20th-century outbreaks of Y. pestis plague, which occurred in India and killed as much as 3% of the population of certain cities.
Although academic debate continues, no single alternative solution has achieved widespread acceptance. Many scholars arguing for Y. pestis as the major agent of the pandemic suggest that its extent and symptoms can be explained by a combination of bubonic plague with other diseases, including typhus, smallpox and respiratory infections. In addition to the bubonic infection, others point to additional septicaemic (a type of "blood poisoning") and pneumonic (an airborne plague that attacks the lungs before the rest of the body) forms of the plague, which lengthen the duration of outbreaks throughout the seasons and help account for its high mortality rate and additional recorded symptoms. In 2014, Public Health England announced the results of an examination of 25 bodies exhumed in the Clerkenwell area of London, as well as of wills registered in London during the period, which supported the pneumonic hypothesis. Currently, while osteoarcheologists have conclusively verified the presence of Y. pestis bacteria in burial sites across northern Europe through examination of bones and dental pulp, no other epidemic pathogen has been discovered to bolster the alternative explanations. In the words of one researcher: "Finally, plague is plague."

Cholera outbreak 1820
Seven cholera pandemics have occurred in the past 200 years, with the first pandemic originating in India in 1817. Additionally, there have been many documented cholera outbreaks, such as a 1991–1994 outbreak in South America and, more recently, the 2016–20 Yemen cholera outbreak.
Between 1816 and 1923, the first six cholera pandemics occurred consecutively and continuously over time. Increased commerce, migration, and pilgrimage are credited for its transmission. Late in this period (particularly 1879-1883), major scientific breakthroughs towards the treatment of cholera develop: the first immunization by Pasteur, the development of the first cholera vaccine, and the identification of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae by Filippo Pacini and Robert Koch. After a long hiatus, the seventh cholera pandemic spread in 1961. The pandemic subsided in 1970s, but continued on a smaller scale, with outbreaks across the developing world to the current day. Epidemics occurred after wars, civil unrest, or natural disasters, when water and food supplies become contaminated with Vibrio cholerae, and also due to crowded living conditions and poor sanitation.
The first cholera pandemic occurred in the Bengal region of India, near Calcutta starting in 1817 through 1824. The disease dispersed from India to Southeast Asia, the Middle East, Europe, and Eastern Africa through trade routes. The second pandemic lasted from 1826 to 1837 and particularly affected North America and Europe due to the result of advancements in transportation and global trade, and increased human migration, including soldiers. The third pandemic erupted in 1846, persisted until 1860, extended to North Africa, and reached South America, for the first time specifically affecting Brazil. The fourth pandemic lasted from 1863 to 1875 spread from India to Naples and Spain. The fifth pandemic was from 1881–1896 and started in India and spread to Europe, Asia, and South America. The sixth pandemic started in India and was from 1899–1923. These epidemics were less fatal due to a greater understanding of the cholera bacteria. Egypt, the Arabian peninsula, Persia, India, and the Philippines were hit hardest during these epidemics, while other areas, like Germany in 1892 and Naples from 1910–1911, also experienced severe outbreaks. The seventh pandemic originated in 1961 in Indonesia and is marked by the emergence of a new strain, nicknamed El Tor, which still persists (as of 2019) in developing countries.
A persistent urban myth states 90,000 people died in Chicago of cholera and typhoid fever in 1885, but this story has no factual basis. In 1885, a torrential rainstorm flushed the Chicago River and its attendant pollutants into Lake Michigan far enough that the city's water supply was contaminated. But, as cholera was not present in the city, there were no cholera-related deaths. As a result of the pollution, the city made changes to improve its treatment of sewage and avoid similar events.


Spanish flu 1920
The Spanish flu, also known as the 1918 flu pandemic, was an unusually deadly influenza pandemic caused by the H1N1 influenza A virus. Lasting more than 12 months from spring 1918 (northern hemisphere) to early summer 1919, it infected 500 million people – about a third of the world's population at the time. The death toll is estimated to have been anywhere from 17 million to 50 million, and possibly as high as 100 million, making it one of the deadliest pandemics in human history.
To maintain morale, World War I censors minimized early reports of illness and mortality in Germany, the United Kingdom, France, and the United States. Newspapers were free to report the epidemic's effects in neutral Spain, such as the grave illness of King Alfonso XIII, and these stories created a false impression of Spain as especially hard hit. This gave rise to the name "Spanish" flu
One of the few regions of the world seemingly less affected by the 1918 flu pandemic was China, where several studies have documented a comparatively mild flu season in 1918. (Although this is disputed due to lack of data during the country's Warlord Period, see Around the globe). This has led to speculation that the 1918 flu pandemic originated in China, as the lower rates of flu mortality may be explained by the Chinese population's previously acquired immunity to the flu virus.
Some have suggested that the epidemic originated in the United States. Historian Alfred W. Crosby stated in 2003 that the flu originated in Kansas, and popular author John M. Barry described a January 1918 outbreak in Haskell County, Kansas, as the point of origin in his 2004 article.
A report published in 2016 in the Journal of the Chinese Medical Association found evidence that the 1918 virus had been circulating in the European armies for months and possibly years before the 1918 pandemic. Political scientist Andrew Price-Smith published data from the Austrian archives suggesting the influenza began in Austria in early 1917.


Coronavirus 2020
Coronaviruses are a group of related RNA viruses that cause diseases in mammals and birds. In humans, these viruses cause respiratory tract infections that can range from mild to lethal. Mild illnesses include some cases of the common cold (which is caused also by certain other viruses, predominantly rhinoviruses), while more lethal varieties can cause SARS, MERS, and COVID-19. Symptoms in other species vary: in chickens, they cause an upper respiratory tract disease, while in cows and pigs they cause diarrhea. There are as yet no vaccines or antiviral drugs to prevent or treat human coronavirus infections.
Coronaviruses were first discovered in the 1930s when an acute respiratory infection of domesticated chickens was shown to be caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Arthur Schalk and M.C. Hawn described in 1931 a new respiratory infection of chickens in North Dakota. The infection of new-born chicks was characterized by gasping and listlessness.
Human coronaviruses were discovered in the 1960s. They were isolated using two different methods in the United Kingdom and the United States. E.C. Kendall, Malcom Byone, and David Tyrrell working at the Common Cold Unit of the British Medical Research Council in 1960 isolated from a boy a novel common cold virus B814.
In December 2019, a pneumonia outbreak was reported in Wuhan, China. On 31 December 2019, the outbreak was traced to a novel strain of coronavirus, which was given the interim name 2019-nCoV by the World Health Organization (WHO), later renamed SARS-CoV-2 by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses.
Infection begins when the viral spike protein attaches to its complementary host cell receptor. After attachment, a protease of the host cell cleaves and activates the receptor-attached spike protein. Depending on the host cell protease available, cleavage and activation allows the virus to enter the host cell by endocytosis or direct fusion of the viral envelop with the host membrane.
As of 19 May 2020, there have been at least 318,554 confirmed deaths and more than 4,805,430 confirmed cases in the coronavirus pneumonia pandemic. The Wuhan strain has been identified as a new strain of Betacoronavirus from group 2B with approximately 70% genetic similarity to the SARS-CoV. The virus has a 96% similarity to a bat coronavirus, so it is widely suspected to originate from bats as well. The pandemic has resulted in travel restrictions and nationwide lockdowns in several countries.

Birthday of queen...

Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 183...